|Subak, Irigation System in Bali Island|
|Monday, 04 April 2011 12:54|
What is Subak?
Subak isi an sosial organization in arranging irrigation system suitable for the rice farming land condition in Bali, Indonesia. This has a srtong relationship with worship of the gods in Bali besides its social finction. As a part of religious activity, the people established a temple (Pura) for this purpose, 'Pura Uluncarik,' or 'Pura Bedugul', which are fiunctioned as a worshipping shrine for Goddes of Properrty and Fertility, Dewi Sri. From the temple, a religious elder (usually also a farmer) will control and regulate the irrigation system forom the temple.
This unoficial movement used for describing fundamntal change in agricultural cultivation technology has been started in 1950 - 1980 in many agricultural based countries in Asia. The result is the achievement of food self sufficient condition which previously, these countries always suffered the food shortage such as they have in India, Bangladesh, Tiongkok, Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia. Mr Norman Borlaug, Nobel Price Winner in Peace category was the first conceptor of this movement.
The green revolution are based on four pillars : availability of water supply through irrigation system, optimum usage of fertilizers, pesticides aplplication based on the level of the pest attack and the use of high yielding varieties as highplanting material quality. Through non-traditional application of this technology, there is increased food crop yields doubled and allow planting of three times a year for rice in certain places, something previously not possible.
When Did They Implement The System
The green revolution has changed the irrigation system, with the new rice varieties and new methods, farmers must plant rice as often as possible, ignoring the needs of other farmers. This is very different from the Subak system, in which the needs of all farmers are preferred. The new method on the green revolution resulted in the first results of the abundant, but then followed with constraints such as lack of water, pests and pollution caused by pesticides both in soil and in water. Finally it was discovered that rice irrigation systems have traditionally been very effective to overcome this obstacle.
Museum of Subak
Subak Museum consists of two parts. There are museums and museums holding open. In the main museum building or complex is sacred with Padmasana, Bedugul and others. And spatial layout of buildings adapted to the surrounding environment by sticking to the traditional development: Tri Mandala, Tri Anga and Asta Kosala Kosali. While the museum is open tangible "Subak Mini" used as a demonstration of Subak, from irrigation systems to farmers'activities in the fields.
Inside the complex there is an exhibition hall, audiovisual room, study room, lodging facilities, libraries, offices and miniature irrigation system. The museum was inaugurated former Governor of Bali, Prof Dr Ida Bagus Mantra October 13, 1981. The establishment of this museum proposed by the by I Gusti Ketut Kaler, customs and religion expert who was then the Regional Office of the Ministry of Religious Affairs of Bali. He saw the need for traditional institutions Subak which seeks to preserve the cultural heritage of this nation since the XI century. The effort was finally realized.
Subak is a customary law community who have sosioagraris-religious characteristics, which is a farmer association that manages the irrigation water in paddy fields. Understanding water control system as it basically stated in the regulations-local government areas of Bali Province No.02/PD/DPRD/l972. In the development, there are some figures that expand understanding of the characteristics of the socio-agrarian-religious in Subak irrigation system, with states more accurately characterized subak called socio-technical-religious, because the technical definition of coverage became more widespread, including agricultural technical, technical and irrigation.
Subak as an irrigation system is a technology that has been commensurate with the socio-cultural blend of local communities. The compatibility of Subak system technology shown by members of the water control system through an understanding of how the utilization of irrigation water that based on Tri Hita Karana (THK), which integrates with how to make buildings and physical network of irrigation, how to operate, coordination, implementation and maintenance operations performed by pekaseh (chairman of subak organization), institutional forms and information management. The system is able to manage irrigation water control system with the basics of harmony and togetherness in accordance with the principles of the concept of THK, and with that basis subak system capable of anticipating the possibility of water shortages (especially in the dry season), to manage the implementation of the cropping pattern in accordance with the chances of success. Furthermore, Subak system as a technology worth it, basically have the opportunity to be transformed, as far as technology equivalence values are met.